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Events and People Who Made History in the Year 1866 AD


January 9: Fisk University establishes
January 11: Steamship London sinks in storm off Land's End England, kills 220
January 15: Bedrich Smetana's opera "Branibori vs. Cechach," premieres in Prague
January 20: Prim's Insurrection in Spain ends


February 4: Mary Baker Eddy cures her injuries by opening a bible
February 10: Dutch government Frans van der Putte forms
February 13: Jesse James holds up his 1st bank, Liberty, Missouri ($15,000)
February 21: Lucy B Hobbs (Taylor) becomes 1st U.S. woman to earn a DDS degree
February 26: New York Legislature forms New York City Metropolitan Board of Health


March 1: Paraguayan canoes sink 2 Brazilian ironclads on Rio Parana
March 2: 1st U.S. company to make sewing needles by machine incorporated, Connecticut
March 19: Immigrant ship Monarch of the Seas sinks in Liverpool; 738 die
March 21: Congress authorizes national soldiers' homes
March 27: Andrew Rankin patents the urinal
March 27: President Johnson vetoes civil rights bill; it later becomes 14th amendment
March 28: 1st ambulance goes into service
March 30: Bedrich Smetana's "Verkaufte Braut" (Sold Bride), premieres


April 2: President Johnson ends war in Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Georgia, Mississippi, Louisiana, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee and Virginia
April 9: Civil Rights Bill passes over President Andrew Johnson's veto
April 10: American Society for Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (ASPCA) forms
April 16: Karakozov attempts to assassinate Tsar Alexander II of Russia
April 16: Nitroglycerine at Wells Fargo and Co office explodes


May 1: American Equal Rights Association forms
May 4: Woodward's Gardens opens to public
May 7: German premier Otto von Bismarck seriously wounded in assassin attempt
May 8: Australian Rules Football is created
May 16: Charles Elmer Hires invents root beer
May 16: Congress authorizes nickel 5 cents piece (replaces silver half-dime)
May 16: U.S. Treasury Department authorizes nickel
May 18: French Government of De Putte resigns
May 21: 1st-class debut of G F Grace aged 15 years 159 days
May 24: Berkeley, California named (for George Berkeley, Bishop of Cloyne)
May 28: Dutch government of Zuylen van Nijevelt/Heemskerk forms
May 30: Opera "Die Verkaufte Braut" premieres (Prague)


June 1: General Dutch Typographer Union forms
June 1: Renegade Irish Fenians invade Ft. Erie, Ontario from U.S.
June 2: Renegade Irish Fenians surrender to U.S. forces
June 7: Irish Fenians raid Pigeon Hill, Quebec
June 13: House passes 14th Amendment (Civil rights for blacks)
June 15: Prussia attacks Austria
June 20: Italy declares war on Austria
June 24: 2nd Battle at Custozza: Prussian-Austria beats Italian army


July 4: Firecracker thrown in wood starts fire destroying of Portland, Me
July 10: Indelible pencil patents by Edson P Clark, Northampton, Mass
July 17: Italian fleet under Admiral Persano capture Austrian Fort Lissa
July 19: Tennessee is 1st to ratify 14th Amendment, guaranteeing civil rights
July 20: Sea battle of Lissa-Austria vs Italy
July 21: Cholera-epidemic kills hundreds in London
July 23: Cincinnati Baseball club (Red Stockings) forms
July 24: Tennessee becomes 1st Confederate state readmitted to Union
July 25: 25th Postmaster General: Alexander W Randall of Wis takes office
July 25: David Faragut appointed as 1st Admiral of U.S. Navy
July 25: U.S. Grant named 1st general of Army
July 26: Canoe Club opens in England
July 27: Atlantic telegraph cable successfully laid (1,686 miles long)
July 28: Metric system becomes a legal measurement system in U.S.
July 30: Race riot in New Orleans


August 10: Transatlantic cable laid-President Buchanan spoke to Queen Victoria
August 17: Bathe and Prussia signs peace treaty
August 20: President Andrew Johnson formally declares Civil War over
August 23: Treaty of Prague ends Austro-Prussian war


September 1: Last Navaho chief Manuelito, turns self in at Fort Wingate
September 4: 1st Hawaiian daily newspaper published
September 6: Frederick Douglass is 1st U.S. black delegate to a national convention


October 1: Dutch Eindhoven-Venlo railway opens
October 2: J Osterhoudt patents tin can with key opener
October 6: 1st train robbery in U.S. (Reno Brothers take $13,000)
October 15: Great fire in Quebec destroys 2,500 houses
October 30: Jesse James gang robs bank in Lexington Missouri ($2000)


November 1: 1st Civil Rights Bill passes
November 4: Kingdom of Italy annexes Venetia
November 10: Gold coins from the Sydney Mint become legal tender in Canada
November 17: Opera "Mignon" is produced (Paris)
November 20: 1st national convention of Grand Army of Republic (veterans' org)
November 20: Howard University founded (Wash, DC)
November 20: Pierre Lalemont patents rotary crank bicycle
November 30: Work begins on 1st U.S. underwater highway tunnel, Chicago


December 3: Paid fire department replaces volunteer companies
December 6: Chicago water supply tunnel 3,227 m into Lake Michigan completed
December 11: 1st yacht race across Atlantic Ocean
December 21: Cheyennes, Arapho's, Sioux, Fetterman Massacre
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