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Events and People Who Made History in the Year 1865 AD


January 3: Con Orem and Hugh O'Neill box 193 rounds before darkness ends match
January 8: Senator Everett Dirksen introduces a bill to make marigold the national flower
January 11: Battle of Beverly, WV
January 12: Union fleet bombs Fort Fisher NC
January 15: Ft. Fisher, North Carolina falls to Union troops
January 16: Confederate Brigadier General John Pegram marries Hetty Cary
January 16: Drunken sailor attacks munitions at Ft. Fisher NC, 40 die
January 16: General Wm Sherman issues Field Order #15 (land for blacks)
January 16: SF Dramatic Chronicle started
January 18: Battle of Ft. Moultrie, SC
January 19: NV Suriname Bank established
January 19: Union occupies Fort Anderson, NC
January 25: CSS Shenandoah arrives in Melbourne, Australia
January 28: President Jefferson Davis names 3 peace commissioners
January 31: Congress passes 13th Amendment, abolishing slavery in America (121-24)
January 31: General Robert E Lee named Commander-in-Chief of Confederate Armies


February 1: 13th amendment approved (National Freedom Day)
February 1: General Sherman's march through South Carolina begins
February 1: J. S. Rock, 1st black lawyer to practice in Supreme Court, admitted to bar
February 3: Hampton Roads Peace Conference, Lincoln and Stephens reach an impasse
February 4: Hawaiian Board of Education formed
February 4: Robert E. Lee is named commander-in-chief of Confederate Army
February 5: Battle of Hatcher's Run, Virginia (Armstrong's Mill, Dabney's Mill)
February 6: 2nd day of battle at Dabney's Mills (Hatcher's Run)
February 6: Robert E. Lee appointed Confederate General in Chief
February 8: 1st black major in U.S. Army, Martin Robinson Delany
February 12: Henry Highland Garnet, is 1st black to speak in U.S. House of Reps
February 17: Battle of Charleston South Carolina
February 17: Columbia South Carolina burns down during Civil War
February 18: Battle of Ft. Moultrie, South Carolina occupied by Federals
February 18: Evacuation of Charleston, South Carolina; Sherman's troops burn city
February 18: Union troops force Confederates to abandon Ft. Anderson, North Carolina
February 20: MIT forms 1st U.S. collegiate architectural school
February 22: Battle of Wilmington, North Carolina (Fort Anderson) occupied by Federals
February 22: Tennessee adopts a new constitution abolishing slavery
February 27: Civil War skirmish near Sturgeon, Missouri


March 2: British newspaper "Morning Chronicle" begins publishing
March 2: Freedman's Bureau founded for Black Education, 1865
March 2: General Early's army is defeated at Waynesborough
March 3: Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands established
March 3: Freedmen's Bureau is created to help destitute free blacks
March 4: Confederate congress approves final design of "official flag"
March 4: President Lincoln inaugurated for his 2nd term as president
March 6: Battle of Natural Bridge, Florida
March 6: President Lincolns 2nd Inaugural Ball
March 7: Battles round Kinston North Carolina
March 8: Battle of Kingston, North Carolina (Wilcox's ridge, Wise's Forks)
March 10: Battle of Monroe's Crossroads, North Carolina
March 11: General Sherman's Union forces occupies Fayetteville, North Carolina
March 12: Affair near Lone Jack, Missouri
March 13: U.S. Confederate Congress calls on black slaves for field service
March 16: Battle of Averasboro North Carolina (1,500 casualities)
March 18: Battle of Wilson's raid to Selma, Alabama
March 18: Congress of Confederate States of American adjourns for last time
March 19: Battle of Bentonville-Confederates retreat from Greenville NC
March 20: 2nd day of Battle of Bentonville North Carolina
March 20: Michigan authorizes workers' cooperatives
March 21: Battle of Bentonville ends, last Confederate effort to stop Sherman
March 22: Raid at Wilson's: Chickaswas, Alabama to Macon, Georgia
March 23: General Sherman/Cox' troops reach Goldsboro North Carolina
March 25: Battle of Bluff Spring, Florida
March 25: Battle of Fort Stedman, Virginia - in front of Petersburg
March 25: Battle of Mobile, Alabama (Spanish Fort, Fort Morgan, Fort Blakely)
March 25: SS General Lyon at Cape Hatteras catches fire and sinks, killing 400
March 27: Siege of Spanish Fort, AL-captured by Federals
March 29: Battle of Quaker Road, VA
March 30: Battle at 5 Forks Virginia
March 31: Battle of Boydton, Virginia (White Oaks Roads, Dinwiddie C H)
March 31: General Pickette moves to 5 Forks, abandoning the defense of Peterburg


April 1: Battle of 5 Forks Virginia, signalling end of Lee's army
April 2: Battle of Ft. Blakely AL and Selma AL
April 2: Battle of Petersburg, Virginia (Ft. Gregg, Sutherland's Station)
April 2: CSA President Jefferson Davis flees Confederate capital of Richmond, Virginia
April 3: Battle at Namozine Church, Virginia (Appomattox Campaign)
April 3: Union forces occupy Confederate capital of Richmond Virginia and Petersberg
April 4: Lee's army arrives at Amelia Courthouse
April 5: Battle at Amelia Springs/Jetersville Virginia (Appomattox Campaign)
April 6: Battle of Sayler's Creek, 1/3rd of Lee's army cut off
April 7: Battle of Farmville, Virginia
April 9: Federals capture Ft. Blakely, Alabama
April 9: Robert E. Lee and 26,765 troops, surrender to U.S. Grant at Appomattox
April 10: At Appomattox, General Lee issues General Order #9, his last
April 11: Battle of Mobile, Alabama - evacuated by Confederates
April 11: Lincoln urges a spirit of generous conciliation during reconstruction
April 13: Battle of Raleigh, North Carolina
April 13: Sherman's march through Georgia begins
April 14: Mobile, Alabama is captured
April 14: President Abraham Lincoln shot in Ford's Theater by John Wilkes Booth
April 15: Otto von Bismarck elevated to earl
April 16: Battle of Columbus and West Point, Georgia (Ft. Tyler)
April 17: Mary Surratt is arrested as a conspirator in Lincoln's assassination
April 18: Confederate General Johnson surrendered to General Sherman in North Carolina
April 20: Chicago's Crosby Opera House opens
April 21: Abraham Lincoln's funeral train leaves Washington
April 24: Fire alarm and police telegraph system put into operation in San Francisco
April 26: Battle of Durham Station, North Carolina (Greensboro)
April 26: Battle of Ft. Tobacco, Virginia
April 26: Confederate General J E Johnston surrenders Army of Tennessee, at Durham North Carolina
April 27: Cornell University in Ithaca,New York is chartered
April 27: Steamboat "Sultana" explodes in Mississippi River, kills up to 1,547. 1450 of 2000 paroled Union POWs on their way home are killed when river steamer "Sultana" blows up
April 28: Giacomo Meyerbeer's opera "L'Africaine," premieres in Paris
April 28: Opera "L'Africaine" is produced (Paris)
April 30: General Shermans "Haines's Bluff" at Snyder's Mill, Virginia


May 2: President Johnson offers $100,000 reward for capture of Jefferson Davis
May 4: Battle of Citronville, Alabama; Richard Taylor surrenders
May 4: Battle of Mobile, Alabama
May 5: 1st U.S. train robbery (North Bend Ohio)
May 10: Jefferson Davis captured at Irwinsville, Georgia
May 10: Surrender of Sam Jones
May 12: Last land action of Civil war at Palmito Ranch, Texas
May 13: S Brownsville, Texas (Palmito Ranch) Final engagement of Civil War PVT John J Williams of 34th Indiana is last man killed
May 19: President Jefferson Davis is captured by Union Cavalry in Georgia
May 23: Flag flown at full staff over White House, 1st time since Lincoln shot
May 23: Grand Review begins in Washington D.C.
May 26: Battle of Galveston, Texas, surrender of Edmund Kirby Smith


June 2: At Galveston, Kirby-Smith surrenders Trans-Mississippi Dept
June 8: Tristanderl und Zusholde, premieres
June 9: Battle of Grand Gulf, Mississippi
June 10: Wagner's "Tristan und Isolde" 1st performance Munich Germany
June 13: President Johnson proclaims reconstruction confederate states
June 19: Siege of Richmond, Virginia
June 19: Union General Granger declares slaves are free in Texas
June 22: 1st class cricket debut of Dr. W. G. Grace
June 23: At Ft. Towson, General Stand Watie surrenders last sizeable Confederate army
June 30: 8 alleged conspirators in assassination of Lincoln are found guilty


July 2: William Booth founds Salvation Army (Army of the Salvation)
July 4: 1st edition of "Alice in Wonderland" is published
July 5: Great Britain delegate's world 1st maximum speed laws
July 5: Secret Service began operating under the Treasury Department
July 13: Horace Greeley advises his readers to "Go west young man"
July 13: P. T. Barnum's museum burns down
July 14: 1st ascent of Matterhorn
July 14: Whymper, Hudson, Croz, Douglas and Hadow 1st to climb Matterhorn
July 22: V E Walker takes 10-104 in an innings for Middlesex vs. Lancs
July 26: Patrick Francis Healy is 1st black awarded PhD (Louvain Belgium)
July 30: Pope Pius IX visits Suriname


August 2: Lewis Carroll publishes "Alice's Adventures in Wonderland"
August 2: Trans Atlantic Cable being laid by SS Great Eastern snaps and is lost
August 20: President Johnson proclaims an end to "insurrection" in Tx


September 3: Army commander in South Carolina orders Freedmen's Bureau to stop seizing land
September 19: Atlanta University forms
September 24: James Cooke walks tightrope from Cliff House to Seal Rocks, SF


October 8: Earthquake in Santa Cruz Mountains
October 9: 1st U.S. underground pipeline for carrying oil is laid in Pennsylvania
October 10: John Hyatts patents billard ball
October 11: President Johnson paroles CSA Vice President Alexander Stephens
October 14: Cheyennes and Arapaho's sign "peaces treaty" then chased out Colorado


November 1: Zutphen-Fishing Dutch railway opens
November 6: Maastricht-Venlo railway in Netherlands opens
November 7: London Gazette, oldest surviving journal, is founded
November 11: Mary Edward Walker, 1st Army female surgeon, awarded Medal of Honor
November 11: Thomas Robertsons "Society," premieres in London
November 13: 1st U.S. gold certificates issued
November 13: PT Barnum's New American museum opens in Bridgeport
November 13: U.S. issues 1st gold certificates
November 18: Mark Twain publishes "Celebrated Jumping Frog of Calaveras County"
November 20: Howard University forms in Washington D.C.
November 21: Shaw University forms in Raleigh NC
November 26: "Alice in Wonderland" by Lewis Carroll published in US


December 6: 13th Amendment is ratified, abolishing slavery
December 17: Franz Schubert's "Unvolendete" Symphony," premieres
December 18: 13th Amendment ratified, slavery abolished
December 18: 1st U.S. cattle importation law passed
December 20: De Clear-Alkmaar railway opens
December 24: Several Confederate veterans form Ku Klux Klan in Pulaski, Tn
December 26: James H Mason (Mass) patents 1st U.S. coffee percolator
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