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Events and People Who Made History in the Year 1854 AD

January

January 1: Lincoln University, a black college, chartered (Oxford, Penn)
January 5: Steamship San Francisco wrecked - 300 die
January 9: Astor Library opens in New York City
January 13: Anthony Foss patents accordion
January 18: Filibuster William Walker proclaims Republic of Sonora in NW Mexico
January 25: Aleksandr Ostrovsky's "Bednost ne Porok," premieres in Moscow
January 30: 1st election in Washington Territory; 1,682 votes cast
January 31: Dutch KNMI established (Royal Meteorological Institute)

February

February 2: Pope Pius IX encyclical "On persecution of Armenians"
February 4: Alvan Bovay proposes name "Republican Party," Ripon, Wisc
February 6: Composer R Schumann is saved from suicide attempt into the Rhine
February 11: Major streets lit by coal gas for 1st time
February 16: Franz Liszts symphony "Orpheus," premieres
February 17: British recognize independence of Orange Free State (South Africa)
February 22: 1st meeting of Republican Party in Michigan
February 23: Great Britain and Orange Free state sign Convention of Bloemfontein
February 27: Composer Robert Schumann saved from suicide attempt in Rhine
February 28: Republican Party formally organized at Ripon, Wisconsin

March

March 1: SS City of Glasgow leaves Liverpool harbor and is never seen again
March 7: Charles Miller patents 1st U.S. sewing machine to stitch buttonholes
March 8: U.S. Commodore Matthew C. Perry's 2nd trip to Japan
March 17: 1st park land purchased by a U.S. city, Worcester, Massachusetts
March 28: During the Crimean War, Britain and France declare war on Russia
March 31: Treaty of Kanagawa: Commodore Perry forces Japan to opens ports to U.S.

April

April 16: Franz Liszt's "Mazeppa," premieres
April 16: San Salvador destroyed by earthquake
April 16: Steamer "Long Beach" sinks off Long Beach NY, 311 die
April 24: Austria's Franz Joseph I marries Elisabeth A E "Sissi"

May

May 1: Amsterdam begins transferring drinking water out of the dunes
May 5: English pirate Plumridge robs along pro-English Finnish coast
May 24: Anthony Burns, slave, arrested by U.S. Deputy marshals in Boston
May 24: Lincoln University, Penn, 1st Black college in U.S. forms by Prebyts
May 27: Marine Telegraph from Ft. Point to San Francisco completed
May 30: Territories of Kansas and Nebraska created

June

June 10: Georg F B Reiman proposes that space is curved
June 23: Antwerp-Roosendaal railway goes into use
June 29: Gadsden Purchase (parts of Az, NM) from Mexico for $10 million
June 29: Netherlands allows corporal punishment

July

July 6: 1st Republican state convention in Ripon, Wisconsin
July 13: U.S. forces shell and burn San Juan del Norte, Nicaragua

August

August 6: Congress passes Confiscation Act
August 8: Smith and Wesson patents metal bullet cartridges
August 9: Henry David Thoreau publishes "Walden"
August 24: National emigration convention meets in Cleveland
August 29: Self-governing windmill patented (Daniel Halladay)
August 30: John Fremont issues proclamation freeing slaves of Missouri rebels

September

September 4: English/French assault on Petropavlovsk Kamchatka
September 8: With a 3-2 count, Phillies Richie Ashburn fouls next 14, then walks
September 14: Allied armies, including those of Britain and France, land in Crimea
September 19: Henry Meyer patents sleeping rail car
September 20: Battle at Alma Krim: 1,000 British soldiers died
September 20: British and French defeat Russians at Alma, in Crimea
September 27: Steamship "Arctic" sinks with 300 people on board

October

October 4: Abraham Lincoln made his 1st political speech at Illinois State Fair
October 10: U.S. Assay Office in New York City, New York opens
October 12: Lincoln University founded as Ashmun Institute
October 23: The Times give precise British positions in Krim
October 25: Charge of Light Brigade (Battle of Balaklava, Crimean War), 409 die
October 25: Prince Menshikov of Krim occupies British base at Balaclava

November

November 2: Cobblestone paving of Washington St. between Dupont and Kearny starts
November 4: Lighthouse forms on Alcatraz Island
November 5: Crimean War: British and French defeat Russian force of 50,000
November 9: Franz Liszt's "Fest-Long," premieres
November 13: "New Era" sinks off New Jersey coast with loss of 300
November 28: Dutch army stops Chinese uprising in Borneo

December

December 5: Aaron Allen of Boston patents folding theater chair
December 8: Pope Pius IX proclaims Immaculate Conception, makes Mary, free of Original Sin
December 9: Lord Tennyson's poem, "Charge of the Light Brigade," published
December 15: 1st street-cleaning machine in U.S. 1st used in Philadelphia
December 19: Allen Wilson of Connecticut patents sewing machine to sew curving seams
December 26: Wood-pulp paper 1st exhibited, Buffalo
December 30: Pennsylvania Rock Oil Co, 1st in U.S., incorporated in New York City
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