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Events and People Who Made History on March 31

11th Century

1084 - Anti-pope Clemens crowns German emperor Hendrik IV

15th Century

1492 - Queen Isabella of Castilia and Ferdinand of Aragon expels Jews

16th Century

1504 - France and Spain signs ceasefire
1521 - Magelhaes takes possession of Homohon, Archipelago of St. Lazarus
1547 - Henry II succeeds Francois I as king of France

17th Century

1644 - Pope Urbanus VIII and duke of Parma signs Peace of Ferrara
1651 - Great earthquake at Cuzco Peru
1657 - English Humble Petition offers Lord Protector Cromwell the crown
1667 - France/England signs anti-Dutch military accord
1683 - Emperor Leopold I/Poland signs covenant against Turkey

18th Century

1745 - Jews are expelled from Prague
1796 - Johann Wolfgang von Goethes "Egmont," premieres in Weimar

19th Century

1808 - French created Kingdom of Westphalia orders Jews to adopt family names
1814 - Forces allied against Napoleon capture Paris
1831 - Mainzer Rijnvaart Convention ends
1831 - Quebec and Montreal incorporated
1841 - 1st performance of Robert Schumann's 1st Symphony in B
1849 - Col John W Geary arrives as 1st postmaster of SF
1850 - U.S. population hits 23,191,876 (Black population: 3,638,808 (15.7%))
1854 - Treaty of Kanagawa: Commodore Perry forces Japan to opens ports to U.S.
1861 - Confederacy takes over mint at New Orleans
1862 - Civil War action at Island #10 on Mississippi River
1863 - Battle of Grand Gulf MS and Dinwiddie Court House VA
1865 - Battle of Boydton, Virginia (White Oaks Roads, Dinwiddie C H)
1865 - General Pickette moves to 5 Forks, abandoning the defense of Peterburg
1868 - Chinese Embassy arrives aboard steamship China
1870 - 1st black to vote in U.S. (Thomas P Mundy of Perth Amboy New Jersey)
1877 - British high director/governor sir Bartle Frere arrives in Capetown
1877 - Test Cricket debut of Fred "Demon" Spofforth, Australia vs. England MCG
1878 - Jack Johnson is 1st black to hold a heavyweight boxing title
1880 - 1st town completely illuminated by electric lighting (Wabash, Indiana)
1883 - 1st performance of Cesar Franck's "Le Chasseur Maudit"
1883 - Utrecht begins water pipe system
1885 - Great Britain declares Bechuanaland a protectorate
1889 - 300m Eiffel Tower officially opens, commemorates French Revolution
1896 - Whitcomb Judson, Chicago, patents a hookless fastening, also known as the zipper

20th Century

1900 - Brigadier General Broadwoods troops fall into guerrilla hands
1903 - Richard Pearse flies monoplane several hundred yards (New Zealand)
1905 - German emperor Wilhelm II visits Tanger
1906 - GB Shaws German version of "Caesar and Cleopatra," premieres in Berlin"
1907 - Romanian Army puts down Moldavian farmers' revolt
1909 - Baseball rules players who jump contracts are suspended for 5 years
1909 - Gustav Mahler conducts New York Philharmonic for his 1st time
1916 - Dutch government ends all miltary engagements
1917 - U.S. purchases Danish West Indies for $25M and renames them Virgin Islands
1918 - 1st daylight savings time in U.S. goes into effect
1919 - Strike against Ruhrgebied government of Scheidemann
1920 - British parliament accept Irish "Home Rule"-law
1921 - Albert Einstein lectures in New York on his new theory of relativity
1921 - British coal miners goes on strike
1922 - KFI-AM in Los Angeles California begins radio transmissions
1922 - Prince Hendrik opens trade fair building in Amsterdam
1923 - 1st dance marathon-NYC-Alma Cummings sets record of 27 hours
1923 - French soldiers fire on workers at Krupp factory in Essen; 13 die
1923 - Stanley Cup: Ottawa Senators (NHL) sweep Edm Eskimos (WCHL) in 2 games
1924 - Croydon Airport: 1st British mig aircraft Imperial established
1924 - London public transport strike ends
1925 - WOWO-AM, Ft. Wayne Indiana begins radio transmission (500 watts)
1926 - German Special Court of Justice for state security disbands
1932 - 150 wild swans die in Niagara waterfall
1932 - Ford publicly unveils its V-8 engine
1933 - 1st newspaper published on pine pulp paper, "Soperton News" (Georgia)
1933 - Congress authorizes Civilian Conservation Corps
1933 - German Republic gives power to Hitler
1934 - Netherlands Indies BC Ltd begins radio transmission (Indonesia)
1935 - Fusahige Suzuki runs world record marathon (2:27:49)
1939 - Britain and France agree to support Poland if invaded by Germany
1940 - Karelo-Finnish SSR becomes 12th Soviet republic (until 1956)
1941 - Germany begins a counter offensive in Africa
1941 - Ground broken for Union Square Garage, San Francisco
1943 - U.S. errantly bombs Rotterdam, kills 326
1944 - Hungary orders all Jews to wear yellow stars
1945 - 3rd Algerian division crosses the Rhine
1945 - Sicherheitsdienst murders 10 political prisoners in Zutphen
1945 - Tennessee Williams' "Glass Menagerie," premieres in New York City
1945 - U.S. artillery lands on Keise Shima/begins firing on Okinawa
1946 - Belgian government of Acker, forms
1948 - Congress passes Marshall Aid Act to rehabilitate war-torn Europe
1949 - Newfoundland becomes Canada's 10th province
1951 - U.S. tanks exceed 38 degrees of latitude in Korea
1953 - Department of Health, Education and Welfare established
1953 - U.N. Security Council nominates Dag Hammarskjold secretary-general
1954 - U.S. Air Force Academy in Colorado Springs, Colorado, established
1954 - U.S.S.R. offers to join NATO
1955 - Collie Smith scores 104 on cricket debut WI vs. Australia, Kingston
1955 - U.S. Assay Office in Seattle, Washington closes Chase National (3rd largest bank) and Bank of the Manhattan Company (15th largest bank) merge to form Chase Manhattan
1958 - U.S. Navy forms atomic sub division
1958 - U.S.S.R. suspends nuclear weapons tests, and urges U.S. and Britain to do same
1959 - Dalai Lama fled China and was granted political asylum in India
1960 - Gore Vidal's "Best Man," premieres in New York City
1961 - Aklilou Habtewold becomes 1st premier of Ethiopia
1963 - Los Angeles ends streetcar service after 90 years
1964 - President Jango Goulart of Brazil chased out of office by military
1965 - U.S. ordered the 1st combat troops to Vietnam
1966 - 25,000 anti war demonstrators march in New York City
1966 - Labour Party wins British parliamentary election
1966 - U.S.S.R. launches Luna 10, 1st lunar orbiter
1967 - 1st time Jimi Hendrix burns his guitar (London)
1968 - Lyndon Baines Johnson announces he will not seek re-election
1968 - Mickey Wright wins LPGA Palm Beach County Golf Open
1968 - Seattle's AL club is named Pilots
1969 - George Harrison and Patti Boyd are fined 250 pounds each for illegal drugs
1970 - Federal bankruptcy court allows Seattle Pilots to be sold to Milwaukee
1971 - South Africa national debt hits 5.45 billion
1971 - William Calley sentenced to life for Mi Lai Massacre
1972 - Official Beatles Fan Club, closes down
1973 - Flyers score 8 goals in 1 period vs. Islanders, on 60 shots
1973 - Ken Norton defeats Muhammad Ali in a 12 round split decision
1975 - 37th NCAA Men's Basketball Championship: UCLA beats Kentucky 92-55
1975 - John Wooden's final game, UCLA, wins 10th NCAA championship in 12 yrs
1976 - Cleveland Cavaliers clinch their 1st ever NBA playoff bearth
1976 - New Jersey Court rules Karen Anne Quinlan may be disconnected from respirator
1977 - Michael Cristofer's "Shadow Box," premieres in New York City
1978 - Red Rum wins 3rd consecutive Grand National and retires
1978 - U.S.S.R. launches Kosmos 1000 navigational satellite
1978 - Wings release "London Town" album
1980 - Larry Holmes TKOs Leroy Jones in 8 for heavyweight boxing title
1980 - Mike Weaver KOs John Tate in 15 for heavyweight boxing title
1980 - President Jimmy Carter deregulates banking industry
1981 - 1st Golden Raspberry Awards: Can't Stop the Music wins
1981 - 53rd Academy Awards - "Ordinary People," R De Niro and Sissy Spacek win
1982 - Arkas tanker at Montz La, spills 1.47 million gallons of oil
1982 - Rock group Doobie Brothers split up
1983 - Earthquake in Colombia kills some 5,000 people
1983 - Marsha Norman's "'night, Mother," premieres in New York City
1984 - U.S. performs nuclear test at Nevada Test Site
1985 - 15th Easter Seal Telethon raises $27,400,000
1985 - 4th NCAA Women's Basketball Championship: Old Dominion beats Georgia 70-65
1985 - El Salvador's President Duartes Christian-Democrats win election
1985 - Wrestlemania I at MSG NY, Hogan and Mr. T beat Piper and Orndorf
1986 - 167 die when Mexicana Airlines Boeing 727 crashes
1986 - 48th NCAA Men's Basketball Championship: Louisville beats Duke 72-69
1986 - English Hampton Court palace destroyed by fire, 1 dead
1987 - 49th NCAA Men's Basketball Championship: Indiana beats Syracuse 74-73
1988 - Last East Limburg coal mine closes in Gent Belgium
1988 - New York Islanders celebrate Denis Potvin night
1988 - Pulitzer prize awarded to Toni Morrison for "Beloved"
1989 - Donald Trump purchases Eastern's Northeast Shuttle
1990 - "Carol and Company" starring Carol Burnette premieres on NBC-TV
1990 - Dionisio Castro cycles world record 20km (57:18.4)
1990 - Riots began in London over the new poll tax laws
1991 - 10th NCAA Women's Basketball Champion: Tennessee beats Virginia 70-67
1991 - 20th Nabisco Dinah Shore Golf Championship won by Amy Alcott
1991 - Albania offers 1st multi-party election in 50 years
1991 - Danny Bonaduce attacks a transvestite prostitute in Phoenix Az
1991 - Georgian SSR votes on whether to remain in the Soviet Union
1991 - Musical "Will Rogers Follies," premieres in New York City
1991 - Soviet Republic of Georgia endorsed independence, Warsaw Pact dissolves
1991 - St. Louis Blues Brett Hull scores his 86th goal
1992 - Delhi beat Tamil Nadu on 1st innings to win cricket Ranji Trophy
1992 - U.N. Security Council voted to ban flights and arms sales to Libya
1994 - James Farentino pleads no contest to stalking ex-girl Tina Sinatra
1994 - Walkway from Cleveland's Tower City to Jacobs Field officially opens
1995 - 1st game at Coors Stadium Colorado (replacement Rockies beat Yankees 4-1)
1995 - Bombay beat Punjab on 1st innings to win cricket Ranji Trophy
1995 - Federal judge orders injunction to end baseball strike
1996 - 15th NCAA Women's Basketball Championship: Tennessee beats Georgia 83-65
1996 - 1st Opening Day in history in March takes place in Seattle
1996 - 25th Nabisco Dinah Shore Golf Championship won by Patty Sheehan
1996 - "Getting Away With Murder" closes at Broadhurst New York City after 17 performances
1996 - Karnataka defeat Tamil Nadu on 1st innings to win Ranji Trophy
1996 - "Midsummer Night's Dream" opens at Lunt-Fontanne New York City for 66 performances
1996 - Radio Canada International's final shortwave broadcast
1996 - Space Shuttle STS-76 (Atlantis 16), lands
1996 - Wrestlemania XII - Shawn Michaels beats Brett Hart for WWF title
1997 - 59th NCAA Mens Basketball Championship: Ariz beats Kentucky 84-79 (OT)
1997 - "Daytime to Remember" a series showing old soaps premieres on ABC-TV
1997 - Pioneer 10, ends its mission
1998 - Tampa Bay Devil Rays 1st game they host Detroit Tigers

21st Century

2002 - 21st NCAA Women's Basketball Championship: at San Antonio


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